Cytokinins or CKs are a group of chemicals that influence cell division and shoot formation. They were called kinins in the past when the first cytokinins were isolated from yeast cells. They also help delay senescence of tissues, are responsible for mediating auxin transport throughout the plant, and affect internodal length and leaf growth. Cytokinins and auxins often work together, and the ratios of these two groups of plant hormones affect most major growth periods during a plant's lifetime. Cytokinins counter the apical dominance induced by auxins; they in conjunction with ethylene promote abscission of leaves, flower parts, and fruits.  The correlation of auxins and cytokinins in the plants is a constant (A/C = const.). [ citation needed ]
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Understanding the drivers of population divergence, speciation and species persistence is of great interest to molecular ecology, especially in the world's biodiversity hotspots. East Asia is one of regions harboring the most diverse temperate and subtropical flora in the world. Although this region has never been directly impacted by extensive and unified ice-sheets, it nonetheless experienced severe environmental change throughout the Late Tertiary and Quaternary with dramatic effects on the evolution and distribution of plants. By using phylogeographic, landscape genetic, and ecological modelling approaches, a steadily increasing number of phylogeographic studies in East Asia have documented the evolutionary web of population demographic, biogeographic, and speciation processes. This symposium will present recent remarkable studies concerning phylogeographic patterns, population demographic/biogeographic histories, speciation processes, as well as drivers of species diversification and persistence that have given rise to one of the world's most diverse floras in East Asia.