Andreoli, . et al. (1997): Cecil Essentials
of Medicine; (4-th ed.)- Company,.
Fauci, . et al. (1998): Harrison’s principles of internal medicine; (14-th ed.)-The McGraw-Hill Companies INC.,.
Shiau, ., Toren, . (2006): The Toronto Notes 2006: Comprehensive Medical References, 26-nd Ed., Canada.
Tierney, . (1997): Pocket guide to the essentials of diagnosis and treatment; (1-th ed.)- Lange medical book, .
Younger-Lewis,C.; Complete home medical guide;Canadian Medical Association (1-st ed.), Dk Publishing Inc.
Mercier et al. (2013) reviewed the features of 26 female carriers of pathogenic mutations in the DMD gene who were referred for symptoms related to the disorder before 17 years of age. Five had a Duchenne-like phenotype with loss of ambulation before age 15 years, 13 had a Becker-like phenotype with muscle weakness but persistence of ambulation after age 15 years, and 8 had exercise intolerance. Initial symptoms included significant muscle weakness (88%), mostly affecting the lower limbs, or exercise intolerance (27%). Cardiac dysfunction was present in 19%, and cognitive impairment in 27%. Cognitive impairment was associated with mutations in the distal part of the gene. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic changes in 83% and mosaic immunostaining for dystrophin in 81%. The X-chromosome inactivation pattern was biased in 62% of cases. Mercier et al. (2013) concluded that carrier females may have significant symptoms of the disorder.
Curiously, in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the lack of dystrophin is associated with increased calcium levels and skeletal muscle myonecrosis. The intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILMs) are protected and do not undergo myonecrosis.  ILMs have a calcium regulation system profile suggestive of a better ability to handle calcium changes in comparison to other muscles, and this may provide a mechanistic insight for their unique pathophysiological properties.  The ILM may facilitate the development of novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in a variety of clinical scenarios.