steroid-binding site sex steroid shbg homodimer single amino acid substitution site-directed mutagenesis human shbg aminoterminal laminin g-like domain homodimeric complex human sex hormone-binding globulin single steroid-binding site prevailing assumption shbg variant dimer interface dimerization domain little information crystallographic analysis steroid binding stoichiometry crystallographic model homodimeric shbg molecule
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Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is thought to mainly function as a transporter and reservoir for the estradiol and testosterone sex hormones. However it has also been demonstrated that SHBG can bind to a cell surface receptor (SHBG-R). The SHBG-R has not been completely characterized. A subset of steroids are able to bind to the SHBG/SHBG-R complex resulting in an activation of adenylyl cyclase and synthesis of the cAMP second messenger.  Hence the SHBG/SHBG-R complex appears to act as a transmembrane steroid receptor that is capable of transmitting signals to the interior of cells.