Vitamin D, which we produce naturally from sun exposure, is essential to the healthy functioning of every organ in the body. Vitamin D deficiency has become an epidemic of modern indoor living, so a supplement is necessary. Look for naturally sourced (from lanolin or fish liver oil) Vita min D3 (cholecalciferol) , which is the type of Vitamin D made in skin in response to sunlight. It is more biologically active than Vitamin D2 ( ergocalciferol ). However, it is NOT vegetarian. Vegetarians should use Vitamin D2, which is derived from plant sources and will be labeled "vegetarian vitamin D." For the latest research on Vitamin D, go to .
Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile .  The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception .  In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone.  The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field.  The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.